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While depictions of nude women were erotic in nature, there was no attribution of impropriety as would be the case for such images in later Western culture.

However, the passive images reflected the unequal status of women in society compared to the athletic and heroic images of naked men.

The toga was essential to announce the status and rank of male citizens of the Roman Republic. Cicero endorsed Ennius' words. Clothing used in the Middle East, which loosely envelopes the entire body, changed little for centuries.

In part, this consistency arises from the fact that such clothing is well-suited for the climate protecting the body from dust storms while also allowing cooling by evaporation.

The philosophical meaning of this myth in terms of stating the source of shame is unclear. The " original sin " did not involve nakedness, but disobedience, yet the first response was to cover their bodies with fig leaves.

The Torah set forth laws regarding clothing and modesty tzniut which also separated Jews from other people in the societies they lived within.

Early Christians generally inherited the norms of dress from Jewish traditions. However, the Adamites were an obscure Christian sect in North Africa originating in the second century who worshiped in the nude, professing to have regained the innocence of Adam.

For men, clothing covers the area from the waist to the knees. For women, clothing covers the area from the neck to the ankles and also covers the hair.

The practice known as veiling of women in public predates Islam in Persia , Syria , and Anatolia. Originally, veiling applied only to the wives of Muhammad ; however, veiling was adopted by all upper-class women after his death and became a symbol of Muslim identity.

In stories written in China as early as the fourth century BCE, nudity is presented as an affront to human dignity , reflecting the belief that "humanness" in Chinese society is not innate, but is earned by correct behavior.

However, nakedness could also be used by an individual to express contempt for others in their presence. In other stories, the nudity of women, emanating the power of yin , could nullify the yang of aggressive forces.

The practice continues at a dwindling number of hot springs konyoku outside of urban areas. Their nakedness was not shocking, since women farmers often worked bare-breasted during the summer.

The late fourth century CE was a period of both of Christian conversion and standardization of church teachings, in particular on matters of sex. A man having sex outside marriage with a respectable woman injured third parties; her husband, father, and male relatives.

His fornication with an unattached woman, likely a prostitute, courtesan or slave, was a lesser sin since it had no male victims, which in a patriarchal society might mean no victim at all.

The period between the ancient and modern world—approximately to CE—saw an increasingly stratified society in Europe.

At the beginning of the period, everyone other that the upper classes lived in close quarters and did not have the modern sensitivity to private nudity, but slept and bathed together naked with innocence rather than shame.

The Roman baths in Bath, Somerset , were rebuilt, and used by both sexes without garments until the 15th century. Until the beginning of the eighth century, Christians were baptized naked to represent that they emerged from baptism without sin.

The disappearance of nude baptism in the Carolingian era marked the beginning of the sexualization of the body by Christians that had previously been associated with paganism.

Although there is a common misconception that Europeans did not bathe in the Middle Ages , public bath houses—usually segregated by sex—were popular until the 16th century, when concern for the spread of disease closed many of them.

In , breasts were associated with nourishment and loving care, but by , artistic representations of the breast were either erotic or medical.

This eroticization of the breast coincided with the persecution of women as witches. In the medieval period, Islamic norms became more patriarchal, and very concerned with the chastity of women before marriage and fidelity afterward.

Women were not only veiled, but segregated from society, with no contact with men not of close kinship, the presence of whom defined the difference between public and private spaces.

While Christians were mainly concerned about mixed-gender bathing, which was not uncommon, Islam prohibited nudity for women in the company of non-Muslim women.

The association of nakedness with shame and anxiety became ambivalent during the Renaissance. The rediscovered art and writings of ancient Greece offered an alternative tradition of nudity as symbolic of innocence and purity which could be understood in terms of the state of man " before the fall ".

Subsequently, norms and behaviors surrounding nudity in life and in works of art diverged during the modern history of individual societies.

Due to concerns about the spread of disease, many European public bath houses closed in the 16th century. This lead to the establishment of public bath houses for those who had no bathing facilities in their homes.

In a number of European cites where this included the middle class, some bath houses became social establishments. With the adoption of showers rather than tubs, bathing facilities were added to schools and factories.

In the United States, where the middle class more often had private baths in their homes, public bath houses were built for the poor, in particular for urban immigrant populations.

By , European artistic representations of the female breast were either erotic or medical. The age of colonialism was marked by frequent encounters between Christian and Muslim cultures and indigenous peoples of the tropics see below , leading to the stereotype of the "naked savage".

In England during the 17th to 19th centuries, the clothing of the poor by Christian charity did not extend to those confined to "madhouses" such as Bethlem Royal Hospital , where the inmates were often kept naked and treated harshly.

The Victorian Era is often considered to be entirely restrictive of nudity. However, throughout the United Kingdom in the 19th century, workers in coal mines were naked due to the heat and the narrow tunnels that would catch on clothing.

Men and boys worked fully naked, while women and girls usually employed as " hurriers " would generally only strip to the waist in some locations, they were fully naked as well.

Testimony before a Parliamentary labour commission revealed that working naked in confined spaces made "sexual vices" a "common occurrence".

In tropical regions worldwide complete or near nudity was common for both men and women before contact with Western cultures or Islam.

Indigenous woman in German East Africa , early 20th century. Fijian girl The locks of hair falling on her right shoulder show that she is unmarried.

When she weds they will be cut. Nudism originated in opposition to the industrialization of Europe in the late 19th century. Nudism's other common name, naturism , signals its core contention that the naked body is natural and that modesty and shame are cultural impositions with deleterious effects on psychological, sexual, and social well-being.

Early nudism was in dialogue with sexology and feminism in a critique of society and its future. In the early 20th century, the attitudes of the general public toward the human body reflect rising consumerism, concerns regarding health and fitness, and changes in clothing fashions that sexualized the body.

However members of English families report that in the s to s, they never saw other family members undressed, including those of the same gender.

Modesty continued to prevail between married couples, even during sex. Bodily modesty is not part of the Finnish identity due to the universal use of the sauna, a historical tradition that has been maintained, which teaches from an early age that nakedness need not have anything to do with sex.

In Germany between and nudist attitudes toward the body were expressed in sports and in the arts. In the s a number of solo female dancers performed in the nude.

Eventually acquitted, she was forced to leave Bavaria. The bourgeoisie were not ideological, while the socialists adopted the views of Adolf Koch, seeing education and health programs including nudity as part of improving the lives of the working class.

While not unanimous in their support, some Nazis used nudity to extol the Aryan race as the standard of beauty, as reflected in the Nazi propaganda film Olympia directed by Leni Riefenstahl.

Public swimming pools in the U. Civic leaders had not intended pools to be used for recreation, but for health and sporting activities, which were male only.

Initially, working class men and boys swam in the nude, as had previously been customary in lakes and rivers. A article on a swim program in Troy, New York stated that boys swam nude, but that girls were expected to wear bathing suits; the writer of the article found nothing remarkable about these requirements.

In , an article in The New York Times noted an increase in American tolerance for nudity, both at home and in public, approaching that of Europe.

However, some traditional nudists at the time decried the trend as encouraging sexual exhibitionism and voyeurism and threatening the viability of private nudist clubs.

The report asserted that children have a natural curiosity about their own bodies and the bodies of others that ought to be addressed in an age-appropriate manner.

According to the report:. The report recommended that parents learn what is normal in regard to nudity and sexuality at each stage of a child's development and refrain from overreacting to their children's nudity-related behaviors unless there are signs of a problem e.

In childcare settings outside the home there is difficulty in determining what behavior is normal and what may be indicative of child sexual abuse CSA.

In an extensive study of Danish childcare institutions, which had in the prior century been tolerant of child nudity and playing doctor, contemporary policy had become restrictive as the result of childcare workers being charged with CSA.

However, while CSA does occur, the response may be due to "moral panic" that is out of proportion and have unintended consequences. Strict policies are being implemented not to protect children from a rare threat, but to protect workers from the accusation of CSA.

The policies have created a split between childcare workers who continue to believe that behaviors involving nudity are a normal part of child development and those that advocate that children be closely supervise children to prohibit such behavior.

It is noted that modern psychology generally agrees that children can benefit from an open environment where the bodies of others their own age of both sexes are not a mystery.

However, there is less agreement regarding children and adults being nude. While some doctors have taken the view that some exposure of children to adult nudity particularly parental nudity may be healthy, others—notably Benjamin Spock —disagreed.

Spock's view was later attributed to the lingering effect of Freudianism on the medical profession. In their study on the effects of social nudity on children, Smith and Sparks concluded that "the viewing of the unclothed body, far from being destructive to the psyche, seems to be either benign or to actually provide positive benefits to the individuals involved.

In , Gordon and Schroeder contended that "there is nothing inherently wrong with bathing with children or otherwise appearing naked in front of them", noting that doing so may provide an opportunity for parents to provide important information.

They noted that by ages five to six, children begin to develop a sense of modesty, and recommended to parents who desire to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they respect a child's modesty from that age onwards.

Recreational swim in the Greenbrier River , West Virginia Bathing in the center of Berlin , East Germany A nude family at Lake Senftenberg in East Germany s.

Historically in Western societies , there are two cultural traditions relating to nudity in various contexts.

The fundamental teachings of these religions prohibit public and sometimes also private nudity. The interaction between the Greek classical and later Abrahamic traditions has resulted in Western ambivalence, with nudity acquiring both positive and negative meanings in individual psychology, in social life, and in depictions such as art.

Naturism in the United States, meanwhile, remains largely confined to private facilities, with few "clothing optional" public spaces compared to Europe.

In spite of the liberalization of attitudes toward sex, Americans remain uncomfortable with complete nudity. In Africa, there is a sharp contrast between the attitude toward nudity in Islamic countries and the attitude toward nudity in certain sub-Saharan countries that never abandoned, or are reasserting, precolonial norms.

In Asia, the norms regarding public nudity are in keeping with the cultural values of social propriety and human dignity. Rather than being perceived as immoral or shameful, nakedness is perceived as a breach of etiquette and perhaps as an embarrassment.

In China, saving face is a powerful social force. In Japan, proper behavior included a tradition of mixed gender public baths before Western contact began in the 19th century, and proper attire for farmers and other workers might be a loincloth for both men and women.

In India, the conventions regarding proper dress do not apply to monks in some Hindu and Jain sects who reject clothing as worldly.

The encounter between the indigenous cultures of Africa and the Americas with Europeans had a significant effect on both cultures.

France, Norway, the Netherlands and the United States show a broad range of openness toward nudity and sexuality as indicated by childhood experiences and sex education practices.

Everybody Gets Naked! As part of a science program on Norwegian public television NRK , a series on puberty intended for 8—year-olds includes explicit information and images of reproduction, anatomy, and the changes that are normal with the approach of puberty.

Rather than diagrams or photos, the videos are shot in a locker room with live nude people of all ages. The presenter, a physician, is relaxed about close examination and touching of relevant body parts, including genitals.

While the videos note that the age of consent in Norway is 16, abstinence is not emphasized. In a subsequent series for teens and young adults, real people were recruited to have sex on TV as counterbalance to the unrealistic presentations in advertising and porn.

As of , however, 37 U. Studies show that early and complete sex education does not increase the likelihood of becoming sexually active, but leads to better health outcomes overall.

Young children often play outdoors or in public wading pools nude. In a survey of predominantly white middle-class college students in the United States, only 9.

Many were accidental walking in on someone and were more likely to be remembered as negative by women. Only 4. A report issued by the CDC comparing the sexual health of teens in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United States concluded that if the US implemented comprehensive sex education similar to that in the three European counties there would be as significantly reduction in teen pregnancies, abortions and the rates of sexually transmitted diseases, and save hundreds of millions of dollars.

High and low context cultures were defined by Edward T. The behaviors and norms of a high context culture depend upon shared implicit intuitions that operate within a social situation, while in a low context culture behavior is more dependent upon explicit communications.

Germans are extremely low in cultural context. They are characterized by individualism, alienation, estrangement from other people, little body contact, low sensitivity to nonverbal cues, and segmentation of time and space.

By contrast, the French, in their personal lives are relatively high context: they interact within closely knit groups, are sensitive to nonverbal cues, and engage in relatively high amounts of body contact.

To maintain public propriety on a nude beach, German naturists avoided touching themselves and others and avoid any adornments or behaviors that would call attention to the body.

French naturists, on the other hand, were more likely than Germans to wear make-up and jewelry and to touch others as they would while dressed.

Societies in continental Europe conceive of privacy as protecting a right to respect and personal dignity.

In America, the right to privacy is oriented toward values of liberty, especially in one's home. Europeans maintain their dignity, even naked where others may see them, while Americans see public nakedness as a surrender of "any reasonable expectation of privacy ".

Such cultural differences may make some laws and behaviors of other societies seem incomprehensible. In Western cultures, shame can result from not living up to the ideals of society with regard to physical appearance.

Historically, such shame has affected women more than men. With regard to their naked bodies, the result is a tendency towards self-criticism by women, while men are less concerned by the evaluation of others.

In much of the world, the modesty of women is a matter not only of social custom but of the legal definition of indecent exposure.

In the United States, the exposure of female nipples is a criminal offense in many states and is not usually allowed in public.

The " topfreedom " movement promotes equal rights for women to be naked above the waist in public on the same basis that would apply to men in the same circumstances.

Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictions , not regulated in others, and protected as a legal right in public and the workplace in still others.

Where public breastfeeding is a legal right, some mothers may be reluctant to breastfeed , [] [] and some people may object to the practice.

In some situations, nudity is forced on a person. For example, imposed nudity full or partial can be part of a corporal punishment or as humiliation , especially when administered in public.

For example, in , students at a girls' school in the north-east Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh were forced to undress as a form of punishment, police say.

Although not as common as corporal punishment , it is not unusual for stripping to be used as a form of punishment in Indian schools. Nazis used forced nudity to attempt to humiliate inmates in concentration camps.

This practice was depicted in the film Schindler's List In , Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad Iraq gained international notoriety for accounts of torture and abuses by members of the United States Army Reserve during the post-invasion period.

Photographic images were circulated that showed the posing of prisoners naked, sometimes bound, and being intimidated and otherwise humiliated, resulting in widespread condemnation of the abuse.

A strip search is the removal of some or all of a person's clothing to ensure that they do not have weapons or contraband.

Such searches are generally done when an individual is imprisoned after an arrest, and is justified by the need to maintain order in the facility, not as punishment for a crime.

Worldwide, laws regarding clothing specify what parts of the body must be covered, prohibiting complete nudity in public except for those jurisdictions that allow nude recreation.

Specific laws may either require or prohibit religious attire veiling for women. In a survey using data from , there were 11 majority Muslim countries where women must cover their entire bodies in public, which may include the face.

There were 39 countries, mostly in Europe, that had some prohibition of religious attire, in particular face coverings in certain situations, such as government buildings.

Within Russia, laws may either require or prohibit veiling depending upon location. The brief, sudden exposure of parts of the body normally hidden from public view has a long tradition, taking several forms.

In the United Kingdom, nudity may not be used to "harass, alarm or distress" according to the Public Order Act of Most naturists comply with the law by being nude only where others cannot see them.

His claim was ultimately rejected. In the United States, public nudity is a matter of local laws with the exception of First Amendment protection of free expression, which is generally recognized with regard to performances in an artistic context.

However in Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. The U. Supreme Court upheld the Indiana law, but with difference in opinion between justices.

Since regulation of everyday public behavior is more often a matter of social convention than written law, some jurisdictions may have no specific law against nudity in public.

This was the case in , when three young men who had been skinny-dipping outside Brattleboro, Vermont decided to go into town to see what would happen if they disrobed there.

They were not arrested, and the following two summers saw a number of incidents of public nakedness until an ordinance banning nudity was passed.

In the 21st century United States , the legal definition of "full nudity" is exposure of the genitals. Where the law has been challenged by asserting that nudity by itself in not lewd or disorderly, laws have been amended to specify indecent exposure, usually of the genitals but not always of the breast.

Public indecency in generally a misdemeanor , but may become a felony upon repeated offense or always if done in the presence of a minor.

In the State of Oregon, public nudity is legal and protected as free speech as long as there is not an "intent to arouse". After incidents in July of ticketing women for sunbathing topless, the Minneapolis Parks board moved to change the regulation that prohibits the exposure of female breasts on park property, which is legal elsewhere in the city and the state of Minnesota.

Some tickets were issued when sunbathers were spotted in isolated areas by drones with cameras. Shame is one of the moral emotions often associated with nudity.

While guilt is the emotion experienced in response to a particular wrong action, shame is a more general and long-lasting self-assessment.

However, shame is often negative as the response to perceived failures to live up to unrealistic expectations. The shame regarding nudity is one of the classic examples of the emotion, yet rather than being a positive motivator, it is considered unhealthy, standing in the way of developing a positive self-image.

The moral ambiguity of nudity is reflected in its many meanings, often expressed in the metaphors used to describe cultural values, both positive and negative.

One of the first—but now obsolete—meanings of nude in the 16th century was "mere, plain, open, explicit" reflected in the modern metaphors "the naked truth", "the bare facts".

Naturists often speak of their nakedness in terms of a return to the innocence and simplicity of childhood. The term naturism is based upon nakedness as being connected to nature in a positive way; which includes egalitarianism , that all humans are alike in their nakedness.

Nudity also represents freedom; the liberation of the body is associated with sexual liberation, although many naturists tend to downplay this connection.

In some forms of group psychotherapy , nudity has been used to promote open interaction and communication.

Religious persons who reject the world as it is including all possessions may practice nudism, or use nakedness as a protest against an unjust world.

Many of the negative associations are the inverse of positive ones. If nudity is truth, nakedness may be an invasion of privacy or the exposure of uncomfortable truths, a source of anxiety.

The strong connection of nudity to sex produces shame when naked in contexts where sexuality is deemed inappropriate.

Rather than being natural, nakedness is associated with savagery, poverty, criminality, and death. To be deprived of clothes is punishment; humiliating and degrading.

Confronted with this ambiguity, some individuals seek to resolve it by working toward greater acceptance of nudity for themselves and others.

The majority of naturists go through stages during which they gradually learn a new set of values regarding the human body.

Nudity is used to draw public and attention to a cause, sometimes including the promotion of public nudity itself. Persons who practice and advocate personal and social nudity distinguish between sexual and non-sexual nudity.

Studies of naturism find that its practitioners adopt behaviors and norms that suppress the sexual responses while practicing social nudity.

Norms related to nudity are associated with norms regarding personal freedom , human sexuality , and gender roles , which vary widely among modern societies.

Situations where public nudity is accepted vary. Some people practice nudism within the confines of " nudist camps " or clothing-optional resorts, while naturists seek more open acceptance of nudity in everyday life and in public spaces.

Bathing for cleanliness and recreation is a human universal, and the communal use of bathing facilities has been maintained in many cultures from varying traditional sources.

When there is complete nudity, the facilities are often segregated by sex, but not always. The sauna is attended nude in its source country of Finland , where many families have one in their home.

For example, the Friedrichsbad in Baden-Baden has designated times when mixed nude bathing is permitted. The German sauna culture also became popular in neighbouring countries such as Switzerland , Belgium , the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

When public saunas were built in the 20th century, they might include separate steam rooms for men and women. In Korea , bathhouses are known as Jjimjilbang.

Such facilities may include mixed-sex sauna areas where clothing is worn, but bathing areas are gender segregated; nudity is required in those areas.

In addition to the health benefits, a woman wrote in Psychology Today suggesting the social benefits for women and girls having real life experience of seeing the variety of real female bodies—even more naked than at a beach—as a counterbalance to the unrealistic nudity seen in popular media.

In Russia , public banyas are clothing-optional and are usually gender-segregated. In India, priests of the Digambara "skyclad" sect of Jainism and some Hindu Sadhus refrain from wearing clothing to symbolize their rejection of the material world.

Most retain their own religion, which includes elements of Buddhism and Animism ; as well as traditional clothing, a loincloth for men and a skirt for women.

In sub-Saharan Africa , full nudity or nudity below the waist is observed among some Burkinabese and Nilo-Saharan e. Nuba and Surma people —during particular occasions.

For example, stick-fighting tournaments in Ethiopia. In Brazil , the Yawalapiti —an indigenous Xingu tribe in the Amazon Basin —practice a funeral ritual known as Quarup to celebrate life, death and rebirth.

The ritual involves the presentation of all young girls who have begun menstruating since the last Quarup and whose time has come to choose a partner.

This minimalist dress code reflects the spirit of the hunt and being overdressed may be considered ridiculous or inappropriate.

According to a U. Historically, certain facilities associated with activities that require partial or complete nakedness, such as bathing or changing clothes, have limited access to certain members of the public.

These normal activities are guided by generally accepted norms, the first of which is that the facilities are most often segregated by gender; however, this may not be the case in all cultures.

Changing rooms may be provided in stores, workplaces, or sports facilities to allow people to change their clothing. Some changing rooms have individual cubicles or stalls affording varying degrees of privacy.

Locker rooms and communal showers associated with sports generally lacked any individual space, thus providing minimal physical privacy. For much of the 20th century, the norm in locker rooms had been for men to undress completely without embarrassment.

That norm has changed; in the 21st century, men typically wear towels or other garments in the locker room most of the time and avoid any interaction with others while naked.

This shift is the result of changes in social norms regarding masculinity and how maleness is publicly expressed; also, open male nudity has become associated with homosexuality.

By the s, communal showers in American schools had become "uncomfortable", not only because students were accustomed to more privacy at home, but because young people became more self-conscious based upon the comparison to mass media images of perfect bodies.

The change also addresses issues of transgender usage and family use when one parent accompanies children of differing gender.

This shift in attitudes has come to societies historically open to nudity. In Denmark, secondary school students are now avoiding showering after gym classes.

In interviews, students cited the lack of privacy, fears of being judged by idealized standards, and the possibility of being photographed while naked.

Attitudes toward public nudity vary depending on culture, time, location, and context. There are particular contexts in which nudity is tolerated, accepted, or even encouraged in public spaces.

In Europe, such contexts include nude beaches , within some intentional communities such as naturist resorts or clubs and at special events.

While some European countries such as Germany , for example are rather tolerant of public nudity, [] other nations disfavor or punish public nudity.

In the United States in , the city council of San Francisco , California banned public nudity in the inner-city area.

This move was met by harsh resistance because the city was known for its liberal culture and had previously tolerated public nudity.

Naturism or nudism is a subculture advocating and defending private and public nudity as part of a simple, natural lifestyle.

Naturists reject contemporary standards of modesty that discourage personal, family and social nudity. They instead seek to create a social environment where individuals feel comfortable being in the company of nude people and being seen nude, either by other naturists or by the general public.

The social sciences until the middle of the 20th century often studied public nakedness, including naturism, in the context of deviance or criminality.

A nude beach, sometimes called a clothing-optional or free beach, is a beach where users are at liberty to be nude. Such beaches are usually on public lands.

Nude beaches may be official legally sanctioned , unofficial tolerated by residents and law enforcement , or illegal but so isolated as to escape enforcement.

Distinct from the nude artworks created, sessions where artists work from live models are a social situation where nudity has a long tradition.

The role of the model both as part of visual art education and in the creation of finished works has evolved since antiquity in Western societies and worldwide wherever western cultural practices in the visual arts have been adopted.

At modern universities, art schools, and community groups " art model " is a job, one requirement of which is to pose "undraped" and motionless for minutes, hours with breaks or resuming the same pose days as the artwork requires.

Photography of groups of nude people in public places has been done around the world with or without official cooperation. The gathering itself is proposed as performance art, while the resulting images become statements based upon the identities of people invited to participate by posing, and the location selected; urban, scenic landscapes, or sites of historical significance.

The photographers including Spencer Tunick [] [] [] and Henning von Berg state a variety of artistic, cultural, and political reasons for their work, while those being photographed may be professional models or unpaid volunteers attracted to the project for personal reasons.

In a picture-making civilization, pictorial conventions continually reaffirm what is natural in human appearance, which is part of socialization.

In Western societies, the contexts for depictions of nudity include information , art and pornography. Any ambiguous image not easily fitting into one of these categories may be misinterpreted, leading to disputes.

Limits of the depiction of nudity are based upon the legal definitions of indecency and obscenity. In , the Supreme Court in Miller v.

California established the three-tiered Miller test to determine what was obscene and thus not protected versus what was merely erotic and thus protected by the First Amendment.

Depictions of child nudity or of children with nude adults appear in works of art in various cultures and historical periods.

These attitudes have changed over time and have become increasingly frowned upon, [] especially in the case of photography.

In recent years, snapshots taken by parents of their nude infant or toddler children were challenged as child pornography.

The nude human figure has been one of the subjects of art from its Paleolithic beginnings, and a major preoccupation of Western art since the ancient Greeks.

In "The Nude: a Study in Ideal Form", Lord Kenneth Clark states that to be naked is to be deprived of clothes, and implies embarrassment and shame, while a nude, as a work of art, has no such connotations.

Nudity may be used as a part of live performances, such as dance, theater, performance art and nude body painting. Dance , as a sequence of human movement, may be ceremonial , social or one of the performing arts.

Partial or complete nudity is a feature of ceremonial dances in some tropical countries. However, some claim that modern practices may be used to promote "ethnic tourism" rather than to revive authentic traditions.

A well-known performance that included nudity was the Broadway musical Hair in Models posing on stage nude was a feature of tableaux vivants at London's Windmill Theatre and New York's Ziegfeld Follies in the early 20th century.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State of wearing no clothing. Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Nude disambiguation , Naked disambiguation and Birthday suit disambiguation.

For the preference for nudity in non-sexualized social settings, see Naturism. Main article: History of nudity. Main article: Human evolution.

Main article: History of clothing and textiles. Indigenous peoples in Africa and Oceania. Four Masai tribesmen, c. See also: Child sexuality and Puberty.

Cultural differences in childhood nudity. Fountain in Israel between and See also: Naturism in Germany and Naturism in France.

See also: Pantsing. Main article: Strip search. Main articles: Indecent exposure and Clothing laws by country.

See also: Nudity in religion. Main article: Nudity and protest. Main article: Nudity and sexuality. See also: Sexual attraction and Physical attractiveness.

See also: Sauna and Bathing. Further information: List of places where social nudity is practised. Further information: Changing room and Communal shower.

See also: Nude recreation and Issues in social nudity. Main article: Naturism. See also: Christian naturism.

Main article: Nude beach. See also: Nude recreation and Nude swimming. Main article: Depictions of nudity.

See also: Nudity in film and Nudity in American television. Main article: Nude art. See also: Striptease and Sex show. Human sexuality portal Nudity portal.

Bemerkenswert ist, dass dort heute zumeist auf getrennte Badezeiten für Männer und Frauen verzichtet wird. Nacktheit von Mann und Frau in der Sauna wird hier längst akzeptiert und das hat ein positives soziales Gesamtklima erzeugt, das selbstregulierend — die seltenen Ausnahmen bestätigen die Regel — das Verhalten der Badegäste bestimmt.

Verpöhnt ist […] der Versuch, sich in Badekleidung […] unter die Nackten zu mischen". It is noteworthy that today there is usually no separate bathing times for men and women.

Nakedness of men and women in the sauna has been accepted for a long time and that has created a positive overall social climate.

Self-regulation — the rare exceptions confirm the rule — determines the behavior of the bathers. Pampered is the attempt […] to mix in bathing clothes among the naked ones".

Merriam-Webster's Dictionary. Retrieved 13 November Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 21 December Retrieved 27 October Fordham University. Retrieved 9 November Subcultures and Sociology.

Retrieved 17 November Historical Archives — Male Nude Swimming. Retrieved 8 November New York Times. Retrieved 17 November — via Newspaper Archive.

American Psychological Association. Culture Trip. Retrieved 3 April Retrieved 11 November Retrieved 11 October BBC Online. Retrieved 18 July However using nudity to harass, alarm or distress others is an offence against the Public Order Act of Law Insider.

Retrieved 31 October Merriam-Webster's Legal Dictionary. Retrieved 12 November Japan Guide. Spiegel Online. Retrieved 13 September Federal Law On Child Pornography".

Retrieved 9 October Altenmüller, Hartwig Egypt: the world of the pharaohs. Cologne: Könemann. A History of Private Life. Paul Veyne ed.

Bancroft, John Sexual Development in Childhood. Indiana University Press. Barcan, Ruth a. Nudity: A Cultural Anatomy.

Berg Publishers. Barcan, Ruth In Patricia Whelehan; Anne Bolin eds. The International Encyclopedia of Human Sexuality.

Berger, John Ways of Seeing. Black, Pamela In Forsyth, Craig J. Encyclopedia of Social Deviance. SAGE Publications.

Bloom, Ken 18 October Routledge Guide to Broadway. Routledge — via Google Books. Bonner, Barbara L. In Dubowitz, Howard; Depanfilis, Diane eds.

Handbook for Child Protection Practice. Sage Publications. Bullough, Vern L. Human Sexuality: An Encyclopedia.

Carr-Gomm, Philip A Brief History of Nakedness. Retrieved 1 August Cicero Tusculan Disputations. Loeb Classical Library Translated by by J.

Clark, Kenneth Princeton: Princeton University Press. Classen, Albrecht In Classen, Albrecht ed. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Deonna, Julien A. Oxford University Press. Dundas, Paul The Jains. London: Routledge. Fagan, Garrett G. Bathing in Public in the Roman World.

University of Michigan Press. Fallon, L. Fleming; Davidson, Tish In Key, Kristin ed. The Gale Encyclopedia of Mental Health. Detroit, MI: Gale.

Frey, Rebecca; Willingham, Emily Jane Goldman, Leslie Gordon, Betty N. Sexuality: A Developmental Approach to Problems. Nakedness, Shame, and Embarrassment.

Schriften zur Zivilisations und Prozesstheorie. Wiesbaden: Springer VS. When Broadway sensations May Irwin and John Rice's notorious lip lock was immortalized on film, people were shocked!

This most popular short film an Edison Vitascope film made in Edison's Black Maria Studio was thought to be scandalizing.

It was the first filming of a couple's kiss that was recreated from the two well-known stage actors' May Irwin and John Rice performance in the hit Broadway play The Widow Jones.

The Edison catalogue advertised it thus: "They get ready to kiss, begin to kiss, and kiss and kiss and kiss in a way that brings down the house every time.

Many disapproved and considered it inappropriate to view two physically-unattractive people magnified on the screen during an extended kiss. As one contemporary critic wrote: "The spectacle of the prolonged pasturing on each other's lips was beastly enough in life size on the stage but magnified to gargantuan proportions and repeated three times over it is absolutely disgusting.

Even in , D. Griffith's Civil War epic caused a stir for its stereotypical depiction of African-Americans. This groundbreaking, landmark American film masterpiece about two families during the Civil War and Reconstruction periods was also extremely controversial and explicitly racist.

It was based on former North Carolina Baptist minister Rev. Thomas Dixon Jr. Its release set up a major censorship battle over its extremist depiction of African Americans, although Griffith naively claimed that he wasn't racist at the time.

Unbelievably, the film is still used today as a recruitment piece for Klan membership - and in fact, the organization experienced a revival and membership peak in the decade immediately following its initial release.

And the film stirred new controversy when it was voted into the National Film Registry in , and when it was voted one of the "Top American Films" at 44 by the American Film Institute in The subject matter of the film caused immediate criticism by the newly-created National Association for the Advancement of Colored People NAACP for its racist and "vicious" portrayal of blacks, its proclamation of miscegenation, its pro-Klan stance, and its endorsement of enslavement.

As a result, two scenes were cut a love scene between Reconstructionist Senator and his mulatto mistress, and a fight scene. In the scenes that remained, one recreated the first historic session of the legislature during Reconstruction, in which freed negro legislators were luridly and angrily portrayed as mocking the ideals of the Old South and shown as power-crazy, shiftless, lazy, idiotic, sitting shoeless sprawled with bare feet upon their desks and drinking in their legislature seats.

In another, mulatto leader Silas Lynch George Siegmann , lusting for power and miscegenation, attempted to force marriage upon Elsie Stoneman Lillian Gish - by force if necessary.

During the most famous sequence in the film, excitement was heightened by shots of the Klan alternating with shots of the endangered Elsie - the film exhibited masterful parallel editing.

Along a country road, the Klansman rode to their appointed mission - to first rescue Elsie, and then to rescue the entire Cameron family along with one of the Stoneman boys.

In a diagonally-angled shot, a long line of KKK riders came into view from the distance. The film was thoroughly renounced as "the meanest vilification of the Negro race" and for its depiction of blacks as childlike, conniving, and sexually animalistic.

Riots broke out in major cities Boston, Philadelphia, among others , and it was denied release in many other places Chicago, Ohio, Denver, Pittsburgh, St.

Louis, and Minneapolis, eight states in total. Subsequent lawsuits and picketing tailed the film for years when it was re-released in , , and Ironically, although the film was advertised as authentic and accurate, the film's major black roles in the film -- including the Senator's mulatto mistress, the mulatto politican brought to power in the South, and faithful freed slaves -- were stereotypically played and filled by white actors - in blackface.

L'Age D'Or , Fr. Luis Bunuel. This anarchic, unique, and revolutionary avante-garde film was radical and exceptional in many ways, and created a termendous scandal in the early s.

It showed a deliberate disregard for traditional narrative structures, with its outrageous images and the flaunting of many cultural and social conventions.

It was censored or banned by a few governments, impounded in some cases, sparked riots in theaters, and was considered controversial pornographic and offensive.

In the plot, two passionate yet frustrated lovers, a Man Gaston Modot , a Goodwill Society delegate, and Young Girl Lya Lys , a high-society heiress, were being kept from one another and repressed by the pious bourgeois establishment for fear of them having sex together.

After an opening documentary sequence on scorpions and their habits, there were the indelible images of the lovers in mud attempting to have sex with each other during a cornerstone ceremony to celebrate the founding of Imperial Rome, the two lovers expressing their erotic impulses by sucking each other's hands, and the sight of the sexually-frustrated young woman performing fellatio on the toes of a religious marble statue in a garden.

Other surrealistic images included: mitred, chanting arch-bishops perched on coastal rocks who turned skeletal, a milking cow in a young woman's bed, an ox-cart driven by a horse through an elegant drawing room by two drunken peasants, some acts of violence a dog kicked, a beetle stomped and squished on rocks, a blind man pushed down with a foot to his stomach, a foot crushing a violin on pavement, a punch in the face, the shooting of a young boy by his father - the groundskeeper , bugs crawling over a party host's face, and most surprisingly, a burning tree, a bishop, a huge wooden plow, the bishop's staff, a giraffe statue, and pillow feathers thrown out a window by the enraged Man.

In the heretical ending, bearded and robed Duke of Blangis Lionel Salem , a Jesus look-alike, raped a young woman in a castle during days of debauchery, then emerged without his beard near a crucifix adorned with five female scalps blowing in the wind.

All Quiet on the Western Front D. Lewis Milestone. The scars of WWI were still fresh when this Oscar-winning anti-war movie drew fire for portraying young German soldiers in a sympathetic light.

The Best Picture winning film was the first major anti-war film of the sound era, faithfully based upon the timeless, best-selling novel by Erich Maria Remarque who had experienced the war first-hand as a young German soldier.

The film was made only a dozen years following the end of the Great War, and the memories of the war were still fresh.

It was advertised with the brooding face of one of the young German recruits sent into World War I. It was a critical and financial success, and probably the greatest of pacifist, anti-war films - the grainy black and white film is still not dated and the film hasn't lost its initial impact.

The episodic film is still one of the few early sound films that modern audiences watch. However, it was criticized as being propagandistic and anti-militaristic.

For its perceived anti-German message, it was denounced by the Nazi government in Berlin of the 30s and subsequently banned.

The film was told in a logical, chronological fashion, and divided into four distinct parts: 1 the pre-war education of schoolboys, and the enlistment of the young German recruits, 2 the soldiers' arrival at the front of World War I, 3 the experiences of the cruelties and horrors of war in trench warfare, 4 the hero's homecoming, return to the front, and ultimate death.

The film included a series of vignettes and scenes that portrayed the senselessness and futility of war from the sympathetic point of view of the young German soldiers in the trenches in the Great War who found no glory on the battlefield, meeting only death and disillusionment.

Freaks D. Tod Browning. Though its sympathies were with the sideshow performers, this circus drama was criticized for casting real-life "human oddities.

It was an out-of-the-ordinary picture not easily forgotten, causing both revulsion and fascination. In the film's terrorizing and shocking climax, strong man Hercules Henry Victor and aerialist Cleopatra Olga Baclanova were both pursued in parallel by the grotesque 'freaks' with knives during a stormy night, crawling through mud in vengeful pursuit of their victims.

The film was released officially five months after disastrous preview showings when people fled from the theatres and found to be exploitative, abhorrent and "loathsome" with "unwholesome shockery," although it also portrayed the 'abnormal and the unwanted' as resilient and adaptable human beings with complete compassion and understanding.

Overall, it made audiences uncomfortable and engendered fright, uneasiness and animosity. After initial preview screenings, MGM ordered Browning to edit the almost minute film.

He removed the alarming film's most "offensive" segments approximately 26 minutes , including the original closing scene of an emasculated Hercules singing falsetto after castration in "Tetrallini's Freaks and Music Hall.

And a final epilogue was tacked on with a 'happy ending' between Hans and Frieda to lessen the shock of the film's original ending -- the sight of Cleopatra "the peacock of the air" turned into a legless human chicken with one eye blinded.

However, the changes in the film did not improve the film's box-office business and it was a major financial failure.

Tod Browning's career, which was booming after directing Dracula , was destroyed. It was toured for an adults-only roadshow with alternative titles i.

Howard Hawks. Howard Hawks' classic was banned in several states despite pre-release changes designed to counter claims that it glorified gangsters.

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When she weds they will be cut. Nudism originated in opposition to the industrialization of Europe in the late 19th century. Nudism's other common name, naturism , signals its core contention that the naked body is natural and that modesty and shame are cultural impositions with deleterious effects on psychological, sexual, and social well-being.

Early nudism was in dialogue with sexology and feminism in a critique of society and its future. In the early 20th century, the attitudes of the general public toward the human body reflect rising consumerism, concerns regarding health and fitness, and changes in clothing fashions that sexualized the body.

However members of English families report that in the s to s, they never saw other family members undressed, including those of the same gender.

Modesty continued to prevail between married couples, even during sex. Bodily modesty is not part of the Finnish identity due to the universal use of the sauna, a historical tradition that has been maintained, which teaches from an early age that nakedness need not have anything to do with sex.

In Germany between and nudist attitudes toward the body were expressed in sports and in the arts. In the s a number of solo female dancers performed in the nude.

Eventually acquitted, she was forced to leave Bavaria. The bourgeoisie were not ideological, while the socialists adopted the views of Adolf Koch, seeing education and health programs including nudity as part of improving the lives of the working class.

While not unanimous in their support, some Nazis used nudity to extol the Aryan race as the standard of beauty, as reflected in the Nazi propaganda film Olympia directed by Leni Riefenstahl.

Public swimming pools in the U. Civic leaders had not intended pools to be used for recreation, but for health and sporting activities, which were male only.

Initially, working class men and boys swam in the nude, as had previously been customary in lakes and rivers. A article on a swim program in Troy, New York stated that boys swam nude, but that girls were expected to wear bathing suits; the writer of the article found nothing remarkable about these requirements.

In , an article in The New York Times noted an increase in American tolerance for nudity, both at home and in public, approaching that of Europe.

However, some traditional nudists at the time decried the trend as encouraging sexual exhibitionism and voyeurism and threatening the viability of private nudist clubs.

The report asserted that children have a natural curiosity about their own bodies and the bodies of others that ought to be addressed in an age-appropriate manner.

According to the report:. The report recommended that parents learn what is normal in regard to nudity and sexuality at each stage of a child's development and refrain from overreacting to their children's nudity-related behaviors unless there are signs of a problem e.

In childcare settings outside the home there is difficulty in determining what behavior is normal and what may be indicative of child sexual abuse CSA.

In an extensive study of Danish childcare institutions, which had in the prior century been tolerant of child nudity and playing doctor, contemporary policy had become restrictive as the result of childcare workers being charged with CSA.

However, while CSA does occur, the response may be due to "moral panic" that is out of proportion and have unintended consequences. Strict policies are being implemented not to protect children from a rare threat, but to protect workers from the accusation of CSA.

The policies have created a split between childcare workers who continue to believe that behaviors involving nudity are a normal part of child development and those that advocate that children be closely supervise children to prohibit such behavior.

It is noted that modern psychology generally agrees that children can benefit from an open environment where the bodies of others their own age of both sexes are not a mystery.

However, there is less agreement regarding children and adults being nude. While some doctors have taken the view that some exposure of children to adult nudity particularly parental nudity may be healthy, others—notably Benjamin Spock —disagreed.

Spock's view was later attributed to the lingering effect of Freudianism on the medical profession. In their study on the effects of social nudity on children, Smith and Sparks concluded that "the viewing of the unclothed body, far from being destructive to the psyche, seems to be either benign or to actually provide positive benefits to the individuals involved.

In , Gordon and Schroeder contended that "there is nothing inherently wrong with bathing with children or otherwise appearing naked in front of them", noting that doing so may provide an opportunity for parents to provide important information.

They noted that by ages five to six, children begin to develop a sense of modesty, and recommended to parents who desire to be sensitive to their children's wishes that they respect a child's modesty from that age onwards.

Recreational swim in the Greenbrier River , West Virginia Bathing in the center of Berlin , East Germany A nude family at Lake Senftenberg in East Germany s.

Historically in Western societies , there are two cultural traditions relating to nudity in various contexts.

The fundamental teachings of these religions prohibit public and sometimes also private nudity. The interaction between the Greek classical and later Abrahamic traditions has resulted in Western ambivalence, with nudity acquiring both positive and negative meanings in individual psychology, in social life, and in depictions such as art.

Naturism in the United States, meanwhile, remains largely confined to private facilities, with few "clothing optional" public spaces compared to Europe.

In spite of the liberalization of attitudes toward sex, Americans remain uncomfortable with complete nudity. In Africa, there is a sharp contrast between the attitude toward nudity in Islamic countries and the attitude toward nudity in certain sub-Saharan countries that never abandoned, or are reasserting, precolonial norms.

In Asia, the norms regarding public nudity are in keeping with the cultural values of social propriety and human dignity.

Rather than being perceived as immoral or shameful, nakedness is perceived as a breach of etiquette and perhaps as an embarrassment.

In China, saving face is a powerful social force. In Japan, proper behavior included a tradition of mixed gender public baths before Western contact began in the 19th century, and proper attire for farmers and other workers might be a loincloth for both men and women.

In India, the conventions regarding proper dress do not apply to monks in some Hindu and Jain sects who reject clothing as worldly.

The encounter between the indigenous cultures of Africa and the Americas with Europeans had a significant effect on both cultures. France, Norway, the Netherlands and the United States show a broad range of openness toward nudity and sexuality as indicated by childhood experiences and sex education practices.

Everybody Gets Naked! As part of a science program on Norwegian public television NRK , a series on puberty intended for 8—year-olds includes explicit information and images of reproduction, anatomy, and the changes that are normal with the approach of puberty.

Rather than diagrams or photos, the videos are shot in a locker room with live nude people of all ages. The presenter, a physician, is relaxed about close examination and touching of relevant body parts, including genitals.

While the videos note that the age of consent in Norway is 16, abstinence is not emphasized. In a subsequent series for teens and young adults, real people were recruited to have sex on TV as counterbalance to the unrealistic presentations in advertising and porn.

As of , however, 37 U. Studies show that early and complete sex education does not increase the likelihood of becoming sexually active, but leads to better health outcomes overall.

Young children often play outdoors or in public wading pools nude. In a survey of predominantly white middle-class college students in the United States, only 9.

Many were accidental walking in on someone and were more likely to be remembered as negative by women. Only 4. A report issued by the CDC comparing the sexual health of teens in France, Germany, the Netherlands and the United States concluded that if the US implemented comprehensive sex education similar to that in the three European counties there would be as significantly reduction in teen pregnancies, abortions and the rates of sexually transmitted diseases, and save hundreds of millions of dollars.

High and low context cultures were defined by Edward T. The behaviors and norms of a high context culture depend upon shared implicit intuitions that operate within a social situation, while in a low context culture behavior is more dependent upon explicit communications.

Germans are extremely low in cultural context. They are characterized by individualism, alienation, estrangement from other people, little body contact, low sensitivity to nonverbal cues, and segmentation of time and space.

By contrast, the French, in their personal lives are relatively high context: they interact within closely knit groups, are sensitive to nonverbal cues, and engage in relatively high amounts of body contact.

To maintain public propriety on a nude beach, German naturists avoided touching themselves and others and avoid any adornments or behaviors that would call attention to the body.

French naturists, on the other hand, were more likely than Germans to wear make-up and jewelry and to touch others as they would while dressed.

Societies in continental Europe conceive of privacy as protecting a right to respect and personal dignity. In America, the right to privacy is oriented toward values of liberty, especially in one's home.

Europeans maintain their dignity, even naked where others may see them, while Americans see public nakedness as a surrender of "any reasonable expectation of privacy ".

Such cultural differences may make some laws and behaviors of other societies seem incomprehensible. In Western cultures, shame can result from not living up to the ideals of society with regard to physical appearance.

Historically, such shame has affected women more than men. With regard to their naked bodies, the result is a tendency towards self-criticism by women, while men are less concerned by the evaluation of others.

In much of the world, the modesty of women is a matter not only of social custom but of the legal definition of indecent exposure. In the United States, the exposure of female nipples is a criminal offense in many states and is not usually allowed in public.

The " topfreedom " movement promotes equal rights for women to be naked above the waist in public on the same basis that would apply to men in the same circumstances.

Breastfeeding in public is forbidden in some jurisdictions , not regulated in others, and protected as a legal right in public and the workplace in still others.

Where public breastfeeding is a legal right, some mothers may be reluctant to breastfeed , [] [] and some people may object to the practice.

In some situations, nudity is forced on a person. For example, imposed nudity full or partial can be part of a corporal punishment or as humiliation , especially when administered in public.

For example, in , students at a girls' school in the north-east Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh were forced to undress as a form of punishment, police say.

Although not as common as corporal punishment , it is not unusual for stripping to be used as a form of punishment in Indian schools. Nazis used forced nudity to attempt to humiliate inmates in concentration camps.

This practice was depicted in the film Schindler's List In , Abu Ghraib prison in Baghdad Iraq gained international notoriety for accounts of torture and abuses by members of the United States Army Reserve during the post-invasion period.

Photographic images were circulated that showed the posing of prisoners naked, sometimes bound, and being intimidated and otherwise humiliated, resulting in widespread condemnation of the abuse.

A strip search is the removal of some or all of a person's clothing to ensure that they do not have weapons or contraband.

Such searches are generally done when an individual is imprisoned after an arrest, and is justified by the need to maintain order in the facility, not as punishment for a crime.

Worldwide, laws regarding clothing specify what parts of the body must be covered, prohibiting complete nudity in public except for those jurisdictions that allow nude recreation.

Specific laws may either require or prohibit religious attire veiling for women. In a survey using data from , there were 11 majority Muslim countries where women must cover their entire bodies in public, which may include the face.

There were 39 countries, mostly in Europe, that had some prohibition of religious attire, in particular face coverings in certain situations, such as government buildings.

Within Russia, laws may either require or prohibit veiling depending upon location. The brief, sudden exposure of parts of the body normally hidden from public view has a long tradition, taking several forms.

In the United Kingdom, nudity may not be used to "harass, alarm or distress" according to the Public Order Act of Most naturists comply with the law by being nude only where others cannot see them.

His claim was ultimately rejected. In the United States, public nudity is a matter of local laws with the exception of First Amendment protection of free expression, which is generally recognized with regard to performances in an artistic context.

However in Barnes v. Glen Theatre, Inc. The U. Supreme Court upheld the Indiana law, but with difference in opinion between justices. Since regulation of everyday public behavior is more often a matter of social convention than written law, some jurisdictions may have no specific law against nudity in public.

This was the case in , when three young men who had been skinny-dipping outside Brattleboro, Vermont decided to go into town to see what would happen if they disrobed there.

They were not arrested, and the following two summers saw a number of incidents of public nakedness until an ordinance banning nudity was passed.

In the 21st century United States , the legal definition of "full nudity" is exposure of the genitals.

Where the law has been challenged by asserting that nudity by itself in not lewd or disorderly, laws have been amended to specify indecent exposure, usually of the genitals but not always of the breast.

Public indecency in generally a misdemeanor , but may become a felony upon repeated offense or always if done in the presence of a minor.

In the State of Oregon, public nudity is legal and protected as free speech as long as there is not an "intent to arouse".

After incidents in July of ticketing women for sunbathing topless, the Minneapolis Parks board moved to change the regulation that prohibits the exposure of female breasts on park property, which is legal elsewhere in the city and the state of Minnesota.

Some tickets were issued when sunbathers were spotted in isolated areas by drones with cameras. Shame is one of the moral emotions often associated with nudity.

While guilt is the emotion experienced in response to a particular wrong action, shame is a more general and long-lasting self-assessment.

However, shame is often negative as the response to perceived failures to live up to unrealistic expectations. The shame regarding nudity is one of the classic examples of the emotion, yet rather than being a positive motivator, it is considered unhealthy, standing in the way of developing a positive self-image.

The moral ambiguity of nudity is reflected in its many meanings, often expressed in the metaphors used to describe cultural values, both positive and negative.

One of the first—but now obsolete—meanings of nude in the 16th century was "mere, plain, open, explicit" reflected in the modern metaphors "the naked truth", "the bare facts".

Naturists often speak of their nakedness in terms of a return to the innocence and simplicity of childhood.

The term naturism is based upon nakedness as being connected to nature in a positive way; which includes egalitarianism , that all humans are alike in their nakedness.

Nudity also represents freedom; the liberation of the body is associated with sexual liberation, although many naturists tend to downplay this connection.

In some forms of group psychotherapy , nudity has been used to promote open interaction and communication.

Religious persons who reject the world as it is including all possessions may practice nudism, or use nakedness as a protest against an unjust world.

Many of the negative associations are the inverse of positive ones. If nudity is truth, nakedness may be an invasion of privacy or the exposure of uncomfortable truths, a source of anxiety.

The strong connection of nudity to sex produces shame when naked in contexts where sexuality is deemed inappropriate. Rather than being natural, nakedness is associated with savagery, poverty, criminality, and death.

To be deprived of clothes is punishment; humiliating and degrading. Confronted with this ambiguity, some individuals seek to resolve it by working toward greater acceptance of nudity for themselves and others.

The majority of naturists go through stages during which they gradually learn a new set of values regarding the human body.

Nudity is used to draw public and attention to a cause, sometimes including the promotion of public nudity itself. Persons who practice and advocate personal and social nudity distinguish between sexual and non-sexual nudity.

Studies of naturism find that its practitioners adopt behaviors and norms that suppress the sexual responses while practicing social nudity.

Norms related to nudity are associated with norms regarding personal freedom , human sexuality , and gender roles , which vary widely among modern societies.

Situations where public nudity is accepted vary. Some people practice nudism within the confines of " nudist camps " or clothing-optional resorts, while naturists seek more open acceptance of nudity in everyday life and in public spaces.

Bathing for cleanliness and recreation is a human universal, and the communal use of bathing facilities has been maintained in many cultures from varying traditional sources.

When there is complete nudity, the facilities are often segregated by sex, but not always. The sauna is attended nude in its source country of Finland , where many families have one in their home.

For example, the Friedrichsbad in Baden-Baden has designated times when mixed nude bathing is permitted. The German sauna culture also became popular in neighbouring countries such as Switzerland , Belgium , the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

When public saunas were built in the 20th century, they might include separate steam rooms for men and women. In Korea , bathhouses are known as Jjimjilbang.

Such facilities may include mixed-sex sauna areas where clothing is worn, but bathing areas are gender segregated; nudity is required in those areas.

In addition to the health benefits, a woman wrote in Psychology Today suggesting the social benefits for women and girls having real life experience of seeing the variety of real female bodies—even more naked than at a beach—as a counterbalance to the unrealistic nudity seen in popular media.

In Russia , public banyas are clothing-optional and are usually gender-segregated. In India, priests of the Digambara "skyclad" sect of Jainism and some Hindu Sadhus refrain from wearing clothing to symbolize their rejection of the material world.

Most retain their own religion, which includes elements of Buddhism and Animism ; as well as traditional clothing, a loincloth for men and a skirt for women.

In sub-Saharan Africa , full nudity or nudity below the waist is observed among some Burkinabese and Nilo-Saharan e. Nuba and Surma people —during particular occasions.

For example, stick-fighting tournaments in Ethiopia. In Brazil , the Yawalapiti —an indigenous Xingu tribe in the Amazon Basin —practice a funeral ritual known as Quarup to celebrate life, death and rebirth.

The ritual involves the presentation of all young girls who have begun menstruating since the last Quarup and whose time has come to choose a partner.

This minimalist dress code reflects the spirit of the hunt and being overdressed may be considered ridiculous or inappropriate. According to a U. Historically, certain facilities associated with activities that require partial or complete nakedness, such as bathing or changing clothes, have limited access to certain members of the public.

These normal activities are guided by generally accepted norms, the first of which is that the facilities are most often segregated by gender; however, this may not be the case in all cultures.

Changing rooms may be provided in stores, workplaces, or sports facilities to allow people to change their clothing.

Some changing rooms have individual cubicles or stalls affording varying degrees of privacy. Locker rooms and communal showers associated with sports generally lacked any individual space, thus providing minimal physical privacy.

For much of the 20th century, the norm in locker rooms had been for men to undress completely without embarrassment.

That norm has changed; in the 21st century, men typically wear towels or other garments in the locker room most of the time and avoid any interaction with others while naked.

This shift is the result of changes in social norms regarding masculinity and how maleness is publicly expressed; also, open male nudity has become associated with homosexuality.

By the s, communal showers in American schools had become "uncomfortable", not only because students were accustomed to more privacy at home, but because young people became more self-conscious based upon the comparison to mass media images of perfect bodies.

The change also addresses issues of transgender usage and family use when one parent accompanies children of differing gender. This shift in attitudes has come to societies historically open to nudity.

In Denmark, secondary school students are now avoiding showering after gym classes. In interviews, students cited the lack of privacy, fears of being judged by idealized standards, and the possibility of being photographed while naked.

Attitudes toward public nudity vary depending on culture, time, location, and context. There are particular contexts in which nudity is tolerated, accepted, or even encouraged in public spaces.

In Europe, such contexts include nude beaches , within some intentional communities such as naturist resorts or clubs and at special events.

While some European countries such as Germany , for example are rather tolerant of public nudity, [] other nations disfavor or punish public nudity. In the United States in , the city council of San Francisco , California banned public nudity in the inner-city area.

This move was met by harsh resistance because the city was known for its liberal culture and had previously tolerated public nudity. Naturism or nudism is a subculture advocating and defending private and public nudity as part of a simple, natural lifestyle.

Naturists reject contemporary standards of modesty that discourage personal, family and social nudity. They instead seek to create a social environment where individuals feel comfortable being in the company of nude people and being seen nude, either by other naturists or by the general public.

The social sciences until the middle of the 20th century often studied public nakedness, including naturism, in the context of deviance or criminality.

A nude beach, sometimes called a clothing-optional or free beach, is a beach where users are at liberty to be nude.

Such beaches are usually on public lands. Nude beaches may be official legally sanctioned , unofficial tolerated by residents and law enforcement , or illegal but so isolated as to escape enforcement.

Distinct from the nude artworks created, sessions where artists work from live models are a social situation where nudity has a long tradition.

The role of the model both as part of visual art education and in the creation of finished works has evolved since antiquity in Western societies and worldwide wherever western cultural practices in the visual arts have been adopted.

At modern universities, art schools, and community groups " art model " is a job, one requirement of which is to pose "undraped" and motionless for minutes, hours with breaks or resuming the same pose days as the artwork requires.

Photography of groups of nude people in public places has been done around the world with or without official cooperation.

The gathering itself is proposed as performance art, while the resulting images become statements based upon the identities of people invited to participate by posing, and the location selected; urban, scenic landscapes, or sites of historical significance.

The photographers including Spencer Tunick [] [] [] and Henning von Berg state a variety of artistic, cultural, and political reasons for their work, while those being photographed may be professional models or unpaid volunteers attracted to the project for personal reasons.

In a picture-making civilization, pictorial conventions continually reaffirm what is natural in human appearance, which is part of socialization.

In Western societies, the contexts for depictions of nudity include information , art and pornography. Any ambiguous image not easily fitting into one of these categories may be misinterpreted, leading to disputes.

Limits of the depiction of nudity are based upon the legal definitions of indecency and obscenity. In , the Supreme Court in Miller v. California established the three-tiered Miller test to determine what was obscene and thus not protected versus what was merely erotic and thus protected by the First Amendment.

Depictions of child nudity or of children with nude adults appear in works of art in various cultures and historical periods.

These attitudes have changed over time and have become increasingly frowned upon, [] especially in the case of photography. In recent years, snapshots taken by parents of their nude infant or toddler children were challenged as child pornography.

The nude human figure has been one of the subjects of art from its Paleolithic beginnings, and a major preoccupation of Western art since the ancient Greeks.

In "The Nude: a Study in Ideal Form", Lord Kenneth Clark states that to be naked is to be deprived of clothes, and implies embarrassment and shame, while a nude, as a work of art, has no such connotations.

Nudity may be used as a part of live performances, such as dance, theater, performance art and nude body painting. Dance , as a sequence of human movement, may be ceremonial , social or one of the performing arts.

Partial or complete nudity is a feature of ceremonial dances in some tropical countries. However, some claim that modern practices may be used to promote "ethnic tourism" rather than to revive authentic traditions.

A well-known performance that included nudity was the Broadway musical Hair in Models posing on stage nude was a feature of tableaux vivants at London's Windmill Theatre and New York's Ziegfeld Follies in the early 20th century.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. State of wearing no clothing. Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Nude disambiguation , Naked disambiguation and Birthday suit disambiguation.

For the preference for nudity in non-sexualized social settings, see Naturism. Main article: History of nudity. Main article: Human evolution. Main article: History of clothing and textiles.

Indigenous peoples in Africa and Oceania. Four Masai tribesmen, c. See also: Child sexuality and Puberty. Cultural differences in childhood nudity.

Fountain in Israel between and See also: Naturism in Germany and Naturism in France. See also: Pantsing. Main article: Strip search.

Main articles: Indecent exposure and Clothing laws by country. See also: Nudity in religion. Main article: Nudity and protest.

Main article: Nudity and sexuality. See also: Sexual attraction and Physical attractiveness. See also: Sauna and Bathing. Further information: List of places where social nudity is practised.

Further information: Changing room and Communal shower. See also: Nude recreation and Issues in social nudity. Main article: Naturism. See also: Christian naturism.

Main article: Nude beach. See also: Nude recreation and Nude swimming. Main article: Depictions of nudity. See also: Nudity in film and Nudity in American television.

Main article: Nude art. See also: Striptease and Sex show. Human sexuality portal Nudity portal. Bemerkenswert ist, dass dort heute zumeist auf getrennte Badezeiten für Männer und Frauen verzichtet wird.

Nacktheit von Mann und Frau in der Sauna wird hier längst akzeptiert und das hat ein positives soziales Gesamtklima erzeugt, das selbstregulierend — die seltenen Ausnahmen bestätigen die Regel — das Verhalten der Badegäste bestimmt.

Verpöhnt ist […] der Versuch, sich in Badekleidung […] unter die Nackten zu mischen". It is noteworthy that today there is usually no separate bathing times for men and women.

Nakedness of men and women in the sauna has been accepted for a long time and that has created a positive overall social climate. Self-regulation — the rare exceptions confirm the rule — determines the behavior of the bathers.

Pampered is the attempt […] to mix in bathing clothes among the naked ones". Merriam-Webster's Dictionary. Retrieved 13 November Encyclopedia Britannica.

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